Ahead to the Future – New and existing CO2 sources as well as the development of CO2 applications

by | Jun 2, 2024

As source types continue to be evaluated and developed, biogas has become all the rage in the CO2 industry. As a function of feedstock type, capacity, location, and operator. The consideration as to markets served is fully a function of the materials which source the anaerobic digester. In any event, specific markets are served by various grades of product. 

Advanced Cryogenics, Ltd. is also a supplier of consulting services to emerging commercial CO2 source – types, such as current and future developments of fuel cell technologies, which in some cases, yield a CO2 by-product stream. The company evaluates pure sequestration options which today are subsidized by 45Q and the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA). Such include Class VI wells, sequestration into concrete, chemicals, and advanced chemicals and products.

As for the issue of CO2 sequestration, as related to emissions reduction efforts and mandates; the company provides consulting services in the definition of all viable CO2 sinks which may be applicable to the carbon dioxide source in question. Please contact us for further information on your requirements, whether they involve emissions reduction tasks or questions, or if they should involve issues related to the refinement, production, marketing, and infrastructure which is related to the successful recovery, purification, and application of CO2 in any industry or process which may occur. The requirements for consulting services can also include expert witness requirements associated with carbon dioxide plants, markets, applications, and the industry in general.

CO2 quality and specifications are critical to serving the correct markets

Quality issues are an integral part of supplying product to various sectors of the industry. Many of today’s US plants produce beverage grade, otherwise defined as CGA ‘i’ grade, or ISBT grade. The table below illustrates this.

Parameter Rationale (1)
Purity 99.9% v/v min. Process
Moisture 20 ppm v/v max. Process
Acidity To pass test Regulatory
Oxygen 30 ppm v/v max. Sensory
Nitrogen compounds


2.5 ppm v/v max. Process

Nitric oxide/nitrogen dioxide

2.5 ppm v/v max. each Regulatory

Non-volatile residue

10 ppm 2/2 max. Sensory

Non-volatile organic residue

5 ppm w/w max. Sensory
Phosphine To pass test (0.3 ppm v/v max) Regulatory
Total volatile 50 ppm v/v max. of which 20 ppm v/v Sensory

Hydrocarbons (as methane)

max. of non-methane hydrocarbons


0.2 ppm v/v max. Sensory

Aromatic hydrocarbon

0.020 ppm v/v max. Regulatory

Carbon monoxide

10 ppm v/v max. Process
Total sulfur (as S) 0.1 ppm v/v max. Sensory

Carbonyl sulfide

0.1 ppm v/v max. Sensory

Hydrogen sulfide

0.1 ppm v/v max. Sensory

Sulfur dioxide

1 ppm v/v max. Sensory
Appearance in water No color or turbidity Sensory
Odor Odorless Sensory
Taste and odor No foreign taste or odor in water
(1) Rationale definitions:
  • Sensory: Any attribute that negatively impacts the taste, appearance, or odor of beverage.
  • Process: Any attribute that defines a key parameter in a controlled process and an important consideration.
  • Regulatory: Any attribute whole limit is set by governing regulatory agencies.

Advanced Cryogenics, Ltd., has written specifications for quality for food processors, and gas companies; among others. Please contact us to learn more about quality, specifications, and how this applies to your projects.

Equipment Source to the CO2 & Liquid Nitrogen Trades

Advanced Cryogenics, Ltd. is also a supplier of new and surplus CO2 plants, application, freezing, and storage equipment to the CO2 and liquid nitrogen industries. Please contact us for your specific equipment needs.